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The population challenge

 http://tns.thenews.com.pk/population-challenge/#.WqJhJuhubIV

Rising population poses a serious threat to Pakistan’s progress. Here are a few suggestions by experts to stem the crisis

The population challenge
 The biggest issues facing Pakistan are the booming population growth and the lack of awareness across the board regarding how big a threat this poses to the country’s progress. Simply put, the country has too many people and not matching resources in the spheres of food, health, education, and employment systems. Conferences are held and experts join their heads in exasperation to think of policies and projects that can manage this unbridled growth. Yet, the most basic of problems is often overlooked — raising awareness.

If enough efforts are not made to slow down Pakistan’s population growth rate, the population will likely increase from the current 189 million people to 310 million by 2050 (UN DESA, 2015). But this is a conservative estimate. According to President Population Association of Pakistan and Chairman Punjab Higher Education Commission Dr Nizamuddin, the country’s population would cross the 395 million mark by 2047. He said this at the recently held Eighteenth Annual Population Research Conference, Population Growth and Investing in Human Resource Development, in collaboration with Government College University Lahore. With just three years left to achieve its FP 2020 targets, Pakistan’s high growth rate of 2.4 per cent depicted in Population Census of 2017 asks for serious efforts.

Speakers at the conference gave different and relevant solutions to how the challenge can be met. Dr Aziz Rab of Greenstar Marketing emphasised on a number of ideas, all aimed at raising general awareness among people regarding family planning, like a toll free number where people can get guidance regarding FP, as well as free air time for the purpose. However, all of this would need political will and support from the government.

If enough efforts are not made to slow down Pakistan’s population growth rate, the population will likely increase from the current 189 million people to 310 million by 2050 (UN DESA, 2015). But this is a conservative estimate.

Dr Attiya Inayatullah, Chairperson Rahnuma Group of Pakistan, pressed upon the need for public-private partnerships to achieve the desired targets. She expressed the need to bring the private sector on board in all FP efforts, as well as leveraging men to become allies in this endeavour. Stalwarts of the field like Dr Mehtab S. Karim, Executive Director, Centre for Studies in Population & Health, Dr. Zeba A. Sathar, Country Director, Population Council, and Dr. Farid Midhet, Vice President, Population Association of Pakistan & Country Director, Jhpiego Pakistan, participated in the conference.

A panel discussion on Pakistan’s 6th population census results, organised by Jhpiego and the Population Association of Pakistan, had experts debating the methodology of the population census 2017. Journalist Zofeen Ebrahim who was invited as a panelist at the session, said that now that Pakistan has a fair idea of the numbers “we need to focus on planning for the people in earnest instead of quibbling over the methodology of the census”.

As Dr Inayatullah pointed out, Pakistan has the know-how and can achieve the targets. What it needs right now is a reality check, she said. “There are two gaps: Implementation is key for which we must get down to the grass roots. And secondly, where do we find a political leader who will speak out boldly in an upfront manner about this?”

A possible solution

While moots like the aforementioned conference give the much needed impetus to the issue at the top of the pyramid, doctors working at grassroots level like obstetrician Dr Halima Yasmeen at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC) Karachi, feel that growth rate cannot be slowed down till awareness is raised. For this, dedicated counselors who can talk to women and convince them to use contraceptives can play a core role.

“It is an evidence-based fact that introducing a cadre of FP counselors shows better results when it comes to use of contraceptives. These counselors should be there at hospitals 24/7, just like nursing and janitorial staff is there round the clock. And their job should be only to talk to people,” she said, emphasising the importance of convincing people to use contraceptives.

“Our doctors are fulfilling their own dreams, and are on autopilot mode. What they are not doing is fulfilling the needs of this country as a whole,” said Dr Azra Ahsan, gynaecologist and consultant at the National Committee for Maternal and Neonatal Health (NCMNH). Dr Ahsan, while talking to The News on Sunday, expressed that the key to solving this problem lies in sensitising healthcare practitioners. “Every healthcare provider should know about providing family planning (FP) services. But they are not taught how to do it properly even in medical colleges. They don’t even know how to manage post-partum hemorrhage, because there is no glamour in this kind of healthcare service,” she says.

With mobility restrictions and traditional barriers, women don’t readily come to hospitals and clinics. However, the rates of women opting for deliveries in hospitals or healthcare units has gone up considerably, and this allows a great opportunity to convince them for post-partum contraception. “Most women do not come back for follow ups, which means that they will not get contraception-related advice in time,” says Dr Ahsan, commenting on golden opportunities that keep slipping through the net.

A project of NCMNH involved stationing two to three dedicated FP counselors in selected hospitals in Karachi, and this strategic placement multiplied the number of women opting for contraceptives like Intra-Uterine Devices (IUDs). “The day the counselors didn’t come, we saw that no women opted for contraceptives,” says Dr Ahsan.

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Being a mother – How breastfeeding can save lives of Pakistan’s infants

breastfeeding pic
By Farahnaz Zahidi

August 7, 2016

The myth that just mother’s milk does not suffice has caught on, and this trend is an imminent danger to the lives of Pakistani infants

Her fifth child is due any day. Nazeer Bibi lives in a shanty part of Qayyumabad, Karachi, and has already decided that she will feed her baby formula milk.
“I work in three houses as a domestic help to support my family. I leave at 8 am after dropping my older children to school and return by 4 pm, and the baby will have to be at home. What option do I have? Besides, dabbay ka doodh (formula milk) makes babies healthier. I want my baby to be healthy like the babies in advertisements.”
Nazeer’s baby will be one of the 62 per cent Pakistani infants who are not exclusively breastfed. Only 38 per cent of infants under the age of six months are exclusively breastfed, according to the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) 2012-13. The rates are the lowest in South Asia.
The myth that just mother’s milk does not suffice has caught on, and this trend is an imminent danger to the lives of Pakistani infants, a danger that is not talked about often enough. As the World Breastfeeding Week is celebrated globally from August 1-7, the conversation around breastfeeding needs to be more audible and frequent in Pakistan. But bringing up the topic inevitably initiates parallel discourse regarding how lives of infants are less safer till formula milk is promoted as a choice. “From tobacco, to sugar, to formula milk, the most vulnerable suffer when commercial interests collide with public health,” says an editorial in medical journal The Lancet.
“Formula milk should only be given when there is a medical reason for it,” says Dr Azra Ahsan, an expert in mother and child health. “The baby gets complete nutrition through breastfeeding. The mother passes on her protective antibodies to prevent common illnesses in the baby. As no water is required to prepare it, unlike how formula milk is prepared, the chances of diarrohea and vomiting are minimised.”
According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), breastfeeding has the potential to prevent about 800,000 under-five deaths per year globally if all children 0-23 months were optimally breastfed. Pakistan has one of the highest infant mortality rates in the region, all the more reason that breastfeeding must be encouraged, especially among the lower income strata.
The PDHS 2012-13 findings also show increase in bottle feeding rates in Pakistan.
“Babies who are born to mothers from the lower income strata are more at danger if they are not exclusively breastfed. The water these mothers use to prepare the formula is unhygienic, and the bottles are not sterilized. Also, formula milk is not cheap. Once they start the baby on it, they start diluting the milk over time so that the formula powder lasts longer; as a result, the baby becomes malnourished,” says Neha Mankani who works as a community health midwife at a hospital in Karachi.
According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), breastfeeding has the potential to prevent about 800,000 under-five deaths per year globally if all children 0-23 months were optimally breastfed.
Once the baby is started off on top feed, the unaffording or unaware mother, over time, starts substituting it with unboiled cow’s milk or low quality tea whitening milk powder which is unsuited for an infant. “We can try and convince the mothers but only till they are in the hospital. Also, Community Health Workers (CHWs) have no access to women who deliver at home,” says Mankani, adding that she and her colleagues try to convince mothers to breastfeed.
However, part of the problem could be that healthcare providers are not doing enough to raise awareness. “Healthcare professionals are the main culprits. Instead of advising new mothers to breastfeed, they help perpetuate the trend of using formula milk. They are given incentives by formula milk companies. Research shows that children delivered in hospitals are more frequently formula fed,” says Dr DS Akram, Founder, Health, Education & Literacy Programme (HELP).
The laws protecting the right of the infant to health and nutrition are there. Lawyer Summaiya Zaidi says that the primary focus of laws like the Protection of Breast-Feeding and Child Nutrition Ordinance 2002 is to protect the nutrition of the child and promote breastfeeding as a primary source of nutrition. After the devolution, each province developed its own Acts for the purpose.
“The Sindh 2013 Act stresses that manufacturing, advertising and sale of alternate sources of child nutrition cannot be promoted as better than mothers’ milk or even compared to it. This stresses the primacy of breast milk as the best source of nutrition for a growing baby, and only when the mother is unable to provide the same to her child should alternatives be made available. It basically controls the manufacture and advertising of child nutrition products by placing certain legal limits on promotion of the same,” says Zaidi.
Yet, the tussle between public health experts and forces of consumerism continue. Companies producing or distributing formula milk refused to give any statement regarding how they justify the tempting advertising campaigns.
At the 69th World Health Assembly earlier this year, a resolution welcomed WHO’s guidance on ending the inappropriate promotion of foods for infants and young children. The guidance states that in order to protect, promote and support breastfeeding, the marketing of “follow-up formula” and “growing-up milks should be regulated. This recommendation is in line with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.
“The laws are there, but the implementation is a distant dream. Formula companies continue to particularly tantalise urban markets,” says Dr Akram, adding that the government does not seem interested in this cause. Dr Akram and her team run the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) of WHO and UNICEF successfully in Pakistan for a few years. “When external funding stopped, the government was not interested in investing in it,” she says, adding that companies that produce formula milk mainly target the urban market to tantalise consumers.
“For the poor population in rural areas, breastfeeding is mostly the only available option. The urban social landscape is more challenging when it comes to breastfeeding. More mothers are working mothers; more options for top feed are available here; more people can afford to buy formula milk. Awareness is needed in both rural and urban areas,” says Dr Sara Salman of WHO Sindh.
According to Mankani, despite trying to raise awareness, most mothers follow popular myths. “They feel the baby is healthier if fed formula, owing to the aggressive marketing of formula milk.”
The biggest challenge for exclusive breastfeeding is the perception that mothers are not producing enough milk and should supplement with formula because the baby cries, says Meredith Jackson-deGraffenried from Helen Keller International. “This perception is driven by the misunderstanding that if the mother is undernourished and poor, she must be incapable of adequately nourishing her baby.”
“We try to teach these women basics about expressing their own milk and how to store it. Mother’s milk stays fine for up to three days in a refrigerator, and up to six hours at room temperature. It’s an economical and healthier option. But myths are hard to fight,” says Mankani.
Despite proven benefits like the mother who breastfeeds return to her pre-pregnancy state much earlier, and the incidence of breast cancer in women who breastfeed being much lower, as Dr Ahsan says, the myths seem to be winning.
“Socially, breastfeeding proves a challenge as well. There are usually no crèche or nursing rooms at work. That’s one reason working mothers stop breastfeeding,” says Dr Ahsan.

Originally published here: http://tns.thenews.com.pk/mother/#.V6hsuPkrLIX